All presentations will take place on Friday, April 3, at the Tangeman University Center.
Robert J. Kornfeld, Jr., AIA
Principal, Thornton Tomasetti
Presentation Title: Preservation and Sustainability – Integrating Contemporary Technology and Archaic Building Systems
ABSTRACT: The presentation will explore the role of design in historic preservation, the principles that guide decision making in a restoration project, and a set of constraints and criteria that differs from those that designers face in non-historic projects. Using examples from recent projects, it will trace the development of restoration designs based on preservation theory, landmarks regulations and knowledge of both archaic building systems and contemporary technology. It will also describe how preserving existing fabric can meet preservation goals, contain costs and be sustainable by conserving embodied carbon.
The traditional role of historic preservation is to protect what is significant from the past so that it can be interpreted and enjoyed in the future. For us as practitioners, that can be as straightforward as finding the right cleaning technique for masonry.
While early preservationists focused mainly on homes of the nation’s founders or works of great architectural distinction, preservation today encompasses a broader range of subjects from civil engineering works to repurposed industrial infrastructure to installation of blast-resistant or flood mitigation elements in historic properties. Making the existing building stock carbon neutral is a new objective. In today’s world, concepts of appropriateness and authenticity can be challenging, but it makes for an exciting time to welcome diverse disciplines and expertise into what was traditionally a narrow field.
BIO: Using the knowledge gained in 30 years of experience as a preservation advocate and architect, Robert Kornfeld works with Thornton Tomasetti’s offices nationwide to develop a unique historic preservation practice. He is responsible for historic preservation, exterior envelope restoration, and historical and technical research – combining innovative technology with traditional building methods.
As a forensic architect, Bob has also been involved in the investigation of building failures for institutions, government agencies, corporations, private clients and attorneys. He provides litigation support services, testifies frequently at public hearings, and has volunteered as a consulting party on behalf of preservation advocacy groups.
For decades, Bob has given his time to historic preservation groups including the Historic Districts Council in New York City, the Architectural Review Board of the Village of Hastings-on-Hudson and Friends of the Old Croton Aqueduct. He has been a regular presenter at industry conferences and to civic groups, an author of National Register applications, and a guest critic and speaker at Columbia University and the Gotham Center for New York History.
Joel Stout, AIA, LEED Fellow, WELL AP
Vice President, Thornton Tomasetti
Presentation Title: Preservation and Sustainability – Integrating Contemporary Technology and Archaic Building Systems
ABSTRACT: This presentation will examine challenges and opportunities related to integrating sustainable design strategies into the restoration, preservation and adaptive reuse of historic or culturally significant structures. While restoration work extends the useful lives of these buildings, incorporating sustainability measures supports the health and wellbeing of the occupants and reduces the long‐term operating costs for building owners, among other benefits. Topics will include LEED green building certification, indoor environmental quality, energy performance, embodied carbon, and other sustainability issues.
Several LEED-certified projects will be discussed as examples; a University of Cincinnati building that is just 500 feet from the conference site and three other projects that are City of San Francisco buildings.
University of Cincinnati:
- Van Wormer Hall Renovation ‐ LEED v2.1 Certified, January 12, 2009
City of San Francisco:
- Palega Recreation Center Renovation and Addition – LEED v2009 Gold, March 9, 2016
- Public Safety Building & Adaptive Reuse of Fire Station 4 – LEED v2009 Gold, December 16, 2016
- War Memorial Veterans Building Renovation & Preservation – LEED v2009 Gold, August 17, 2017
BIO: Joel Stout has over 30 years of experience in building design and construction and has specialized in sustainable buildings for more than half of that. He has assisted design firms and public, private and non-profit building owners and developers with such services as strategic planning, LEED project management, building enclosure commissioning, water reuse consulting, specifications review and materials research, guidelines and educational resource development and training. In addition to achieving LEED Fellow status in 2019, Joel has earned the WELL Building Standard credential as well as three different LEED specialty credentials.
Joel has extensive experience in commercial, government, healthcare, transportation and education projects. His Bay Area credits include several LEED and sustainability projects at the San Francisco International Airport, San Francisco City Hall, which is the oldest LEED Platinum building in the U.S., and a LEED NC Platinum-certified media and learning facility at De Anza Community College in Cupertino. Earlier in his career, Joel provided oversight on four major LEED certifications at The Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, and served as the University of Cincinnati’s sustainable design expert for more than 5 years, during which time he was involved in campus building projects totaling more than $230 million.
Joel was instrumental in bringing the first LEED-certified school and adoption of green building policies to Cincinnati, Ohio, now known as one of the greenest school districts in the United States.
Technical Session Presentations
Presentation Title: Cincinnati Music Hall Renovation: How Design-Assist Delivery to Preserved a Cultural Icon
ABSTRACT: Cincinnati Music Hall is the cultural center of Cincinnati. Built in 1876 in the High Victorian Gothic architectural style, this iconic National Historic Landmark building has continually operated as a center for cultural performances, social gatherings, and celebrations for generations.
By 2010, years of heavy use, alterations, and renovations had left the building in relatively poor condition. Much of the original architecture had been damaged, covered, or lost over time. The massive scale of the 300,000 sf building, complexity of programing, and extraordinary mix of building systems made any renovation project exceptionally challenging. Several efforts to renovate the building started and stopped without any results.
In 2015, a new effort began to renovate this iconic structure using private funding and a $25 million dollar “Catalytic Fund” Historic Tax Credit. PWWG Architects led the design team and Messer acted as Construction Manager. In order to renovate this massive structure within the extremely tight 18 month time frame, the design and construction team elected to use Design-Assist delivery method. While initially selected primarily to meet the project’s demanding schedule, the Design-Assist delivery included more benefits than speed. The blending of design and construction responsibilities allowed flexibility in design execution, allowed contractors to make informed revisions on the fly, and positioned the A/E team as embedded collaborators with contractors. The process resulted in a project delivered on-time, on-budget, and to high acclaim.
Sr Project Executive, Messer Construction
Brian is a Senior Project Executive for Messer Construction. He is a University of Cincinnati graduate with a bachelor’s degree in Construction Management. His project experience includes Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center Location T, Music Hall Renovation and Cincinnati Children’s Critical Care Building.
Andreas Lange, AIA, LEED AP
Senior Associate, PWWG Architects
Andreas has over 15 years of experience in architecture and design in the Cincinnati region. He joined PWWG in 2016 as the on-site architect for the comprehensive revitalization of Cincinnati Music Hall, where he applied hands-on understanding of technical, functional and aesthetic issues in design to help guide the $143M project to successful completion. Andreas has also helped curate and stage several exhibitions in Cincinnati and served as an art handler at the Cincinnati Art Museum for the installation of the Cincinnati Wing in 2003. He has taught as an adjunct instructor and studio critic at the University of Cincinnati and currently serves on the Board of Directors for the Cincinnati American Institute of Architects.
Presentation Title: Super-Hybrid Geothermal HVAC
ABSTRACT: This presentation explores several heat source/sink strategies that mimic a geothermal ground loop without incurring the cost of drilling boreholes. The purpose is to achieve similar energy efficiencies as a conventional geothermal system at a fraction of the cost. The research and commercialization work was funded by two U.S. Dept of Energy grants and is being tested in a zero-energy office building. Learn how super-hybrid geosystems could be the way of the future.
Steve Melink is Founder and CEO of Melink Corporation, a provider of energy efficiency and renewable energy solutions for the commercial building industry. His headquarters in Cincinnati is LEED-Platinum certified and Net Zero Energy, and over 50% of his employees drive hybrids or electric vehicles. And this year Steve is constructing a second headquarters to accommodate the company’s continued growth and model how to design affordable Zero Energy buildings. Steve is the author of ‘CEO Power & Light – Transcendent Leadership for a Sustainable World’, and in his book he advocates for a clean energy revolution to improve our global economy, security, and environment.
Presentation Title: Sustainable Rehabilitation in Cincinnati’s Over-the-Rhine Neighborhood
ABSTRACT: Cincinnati’s historic Over-the-Rhine neighborhood has recently undergone large-scale rehabilitation through the efforts of local developers, builders, and design professionals. As part of this effort, energy efficiency retrofits have been implemented in many mixed-use and residential buildings, including the addition of wall insulation on the interior of previously uninsulated walls. This presentation discusses the preliminary results from a research project—conducted in collaboration with local industry partners—examining the in-situ performance of these retrofits. First, the overall rehabilitation strategy is reviewed, with an emphasis on energy efficiency and the wall retrofit detail. Then, the research motivation, methods, and results are presented, as well as their relevance to practicing architects and engineers. Finally, the presentation concludes with a discussion of the importance of studying building performance in situ and the benefits and drawbacks of collaborations between academic institutions and local industry partners.
Amanda Webb, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, University of Cincinnati
Amanda Webb is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering and Construction Management at the University of Cincinnati, where her research addresses the energy performance of historic buildings. She is a committee member of ASHRAE's Guideline 34, Energy Efficiency Guideline for Historic Buildings, and a U.S. Task Expert for the International Energy Agency's Task 59, "Renovating Historic Buildings Towards Zero Energy." She holds a Ph.D. in Architectural Engineering from The Pennsylvania State University, a master's degree from MIT’s Building Technology program, and a bachelor’s degree in architecture from Yale University.
Bob Keppler, LEED AP
President, Model Construction
Bob Keppler has been the leader of Model Construction for over 7 years. Mr. Keppler Has over 30 years of construction and project management experience. Mr. Keppler has a diverse construction background including work on commercial, residential, recreational and educational facilities. He has extensive experience in Historic Rehab projects, contract negotiation, construction management, and design bid projects. Mr. Keppler has worked on numerous complex multi-million dollar projects while at Turner Construction, including oversight of the $40 million renovation of Washington Park in the heart of Over-the-Rhine in Cincinnati, Construction of The Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art at 6th and Walnut in the Cincinnati Business District, and the $22 million 3,500 seat auditorium addition at Crossroads Oakley.
Mr. Keppler has been certified as a LEED AP and holds a degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Cincinnati. He is originally from Cleveland Ohio and now resides in Harrison, Ohio with his wife and three children.
Presentation Title: A Case Study in cost-effective NZE: Cincinnati's District 3 Police Station
ABSTRACT: The City of Cincinnati commissioned a Design/ Build competition to build their first police station in over 40 years; it was also their first major Design/Build experience. The City set the competition up for true success to receive a new building that sets the tone for other regional public facilities. Attendees will participate in a facilitated session to play the role of the D/B competitors. Then, the D/B team will outline their approach and showcase the sustainability components of the world's first LEED Platinum and Net Zero Energy police station - while keeping costs in check.
G. Jonathan Boeckling
Project Executive, Messer Construction Co.
Jonathan Boeckling graduated from the University of Dayton with a Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering where he started as a co-op for Messer Construction. He has continued his career with Messer for the last 18 years where he is currently a Project Executive. Jonathan thrives on leading teams on complex commercial projects in all different venues. Not only has he had the opportunity to complete the Cincinnati District 3 Police Precinct, but Jonathan’s experience also includes multiple design-build projects at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, University of Dayton, Bethany Village, and Dayton Federal Building.
Chad Wayne Edwards, RA, LEED© AP BD+C
Principal, emersion DESIGN
Chad Edwards is an architect and CSO for emersion DESIGN, the first architecture and engineering firm in the world with a LEED Platinum office. He started his sustainability work 3 decades ago on the mesas of New Mexico. Chad has worked on 9 Net Zero Energy projects, including some of the most sustainable projects in the region. He was the lead designer for a 3-8 school that will use less than 15% less energy than the average vacant building per square foot, which is on track for LEED Platinum and Net Zero Energy.
Chad has taught at Cincinnati State and the University of Cincinnati, has presented on sustainability, resiliency, security and healthy building design at regional/ national and international symposia, such as the International Education Summit. Due to his leadership, Chad has also been invited to speak to the US House and Senate on sustainability matters. He is a past president of the USGBC SW Ohio Regional Chapter and the Green Umbrella, the region's sustainability network. Chad represents emersion DESIGN on the Greater Cincinnati Green Business Council, where he served on the Executive Committee. Most recently, Chad co-created the Cincinnati 2030 District and serves an advisory role to the director on energy and health metrics.
Tracy Steward, LEED AP, CxA, WELL AP
Principal, CMTA, Inc
Tracy Steward joined CMTA following 12 years with a Fortune 100 building automation, security, and HVAC corporation. A Principal at CMTA, she leads engineering design teams through collaborations with stakeholders, architects and construction management to implement sustainable, energy-efficient, healthy building design strategies. She leverages her MBA to incorporate business decisions related to high-performance design. Ms. Steward is a mechanical engineer, WELL Accredited Professional, and a LEED Accredited Professional. Her controls background is a significant asset in identifying building system issues through an understanding of HVAC system design, commissioning and controls sequencing. She provides a holistic understanding of mechanical systems relating to building envelope and wellness from design through construction.
Presentation Title: Cincinnati Zoo
Vice President of Facilities, Planning, and Sustainability, Cincinnati Zoo
A product of the University of Cincinnati’s Civil and Environmental Engineering program, Mark spent the first twelve years of his professional career working as a project manager for Turner Construction Company. Many of those years were spent at the Cincinnati Zoo, overseeing the construction of several major exhibits. In 2006, he came on board with the Zoo as the Senior Director of Facilities and Planning.
His role at the Zoo is diverse, including overseeing the development and execution of the Zoo’s master plan, leading the visioning efforts and supporting the operations of the Zoo’s 800 acres of farmland in Warren and Clermont counties, supporting a large team of employees that maintain the Zoo’s grounds and infrastructure, and being ever-present in the Zoo’s neighborhood of Avondale.
Mark is also the driving force behind the Zoo’s nationally recognized sustainability movement. By implementing the most aggressive green building program in the nation, along with producing dramatic reductions in natural resource consumption, the Zoo has transformed itself from an organization that barely had a recycling program, to becoming the greenest zoo in the world.
Mark is involved with several non-profit organizations, in various capacities, including SonLight Power, Gabriel’s Place, Reds Community Fund, Habitat for Humanity, the Aquarium and Zoo Facilities Association, among others.
Presentation Title: Cincinnati Union Terminal Restoration and Renovation
ABSTRACT: Cincinnati Union Terminal, completed in 1933, is a National Historic Landmark and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It is arguably the most recognizable building in Cincinnati and has been the home of the thriving Cincinnati Museum Center since 1990. After 85 years of continued use, the building was badly in need of a comprehensive restoration and rehabilitation to ensure its role as home to the Cinti Museum Center into the 21st Century. GBBN worked with a consultant team and Turner Construction to document the building, determine the scope of the project, create documents, and oversee the project. The $212 million project included a full exterior restoration, complete mechanical and infrastructure upgrades, preservation of historic Art Deco interiors, and renovations to the Museum galleries, classrooms, and office spaces to create a first-class visitor experience.
Nicholas Cates, AIA, LEED AP
Senior Project Architect, GBBN Architects
Nick has a passion for iconic buildings that create an exceptional atmosphere and contribute to the unique feel and flavor of a city. His work on Cincinnati Union Terminal’s restoration has established GBBN as a trusted partner in the revitalization of one of the country’s most beautifully designed landmark buildings. Prior to joining GBBN Nick was the project architect at FXFOWLE for some other high-profile projects in New York City such as the Statue of Liberty Museum and the Lincoln Center: 65th Street Public Spaces renovations. Before that, Nick focused on restoration work with John G. Waite Associates, Architects on landmarked buildings such as the Nassau County Museum of Art and the Tweed Courthouse. Nick graduated from the University of Cincinnati School of Architecture and Interior Design in 1999.
Presentation Title: Camp Joy Carbon Neutral
ABSTRACT: In 1937, Camp Joy’s founders took a carload of inner-city kids from abject poverty in Cincinnati’s West End to a place of respite and joy in nature; and they never looked back. Today, Camp Joy serves over 12,000 kids and adults each year, providing a safe space in a nurturing natural environment where people restore themselves and one another through experience-based learning. We are reimagining and expanding our relationship to Mother Earth, hearkening back to our founding value that nature is a healing space. Our goals are easily defined: (1) we will be net-zero everything by 2027 - that means we will give back to nature exactly what we take from it; (2) we will reduce our use of energy overall by designing and operating our buildings to minimize operating costs and take advantage of green building practices afforded by our climate; and (3) we will aggressively nurture the needs of our 317-acre home by tapping into the perfectly elegant processes that drive the natural world. It’s the ultimate model of resilience, adaptability – and hope. And it’s easier said than done. We will detail our work to date, our successes, failures and on-going challenges, in everything from converting grass to native prairie, to re-building our last original cabin to obtain Living-Building Challenge certification. It’s a journey that is not for the faint of heart.
Executive Director, Camp Joy
Jen joined Camp Joy as the Executive Director in 2017 after serving for five years as the Executive Director of the Mill Creek Watershed Council of Communities. She brings 13 years of non-profit experience to Camp Joy, along with a natural resources management education from Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo and Penn State. Outside of Camp, Jen serves as vice-president of the Millcreek Valley Conservancy District (MVCD) and happily parents her 10-year old son.
Presentation Title: Signature Preservation – DAAP Aronoff Center Façade Replacement
ABSTRACT: The presentation captures the preservation/restoration of the Aronoff Center for Design and Art addition to the College of Design, Architecture, Art and Planning at the University of Cincinnati. Designed by Peter Eisenman, the 150,000 sf addition began leaking and exhibited an unusual level of staining and decay almost immediately after completion. The University was forced to reclad the building after only 15 years at a cost of more than $10,000,000. The presentation will be delivered in 5 videos documenting the decisions about preserving a building that is only 15 years old as well as the construction processes that were necessitated by the abnormal complexity of this significant signature building.
Anton C. Harfmann, R.A.
Director of Architectural Engineering and Director of DAAP Infrastructure and Facilities, University of Cincinnati
Anton Harfmann is a licensed architect and builder who teaches Building Information Modeling, construction/structures, and studio courses in both Architecture and Engineering at the University of Cincinnati. He was the lead faculty member for the University’s participation in the 2007 Solar Decathlon competition and has taught net-zero design studios on several occasions since. His research interests include net-zero architectural design as well as Building Information Modeling (BIM) at the component level and he has published many papers on this approach since the early 1990s. He is an early adopter of computing in practice and education and was recognized by Apple who inducted him into the Apple Distinguished Educator program in 2004. His commitment to teaching has also been recognized by the American Institute of Architects who named him one of the top ten educators in architecture in 2009. Currently, Professor Harfmann is the Director of Technology and Facilities in the College of DAAP and is the Program Chair of the Architectural Engineering degree program that is jointly delivered by the colleges of DAAP and CEAS at the University of Cincinnati.
Presentation Title: Lindner College of Business
ABSTRACT: The presentation will examine the decisions and challenges for building the Lindner College of Business. It will cover the architecture, structural, and mechanical aspects of the project, and look at the budget process to develop costs from schematic to design development to construction documents.
Senior Project Designer, KZF Design, Inc.
Dan Groene is a Senior Project Designer for KZF Design and is responsible for the production of architectural construction documents, specifications, construction site observation and coordination. Dan was an instrumental member of the team for the University of Cincinnati Lindner College of Business as well as DAAP Façade Renovation and assessments projects. Dan studied architecture at the University of Cincinnati and has more than 39 years of experience in architectural design and production and construction administration.
Bob Schmitz, RA
Director of Architecture, KZF Design, Inc.
Bob Schmitz, RA is Director of Architecture at KZF Design and was Project Architect for the Lindner College of Business project. He leads the architectural practice for the firm and has a hand in projects company-wide, including leading the architecture team for several projects at Cincinnati Smale Riverfront Park, and for corporate clients such as GE Aviation, Microsoft, WCPO-TV and Volvo Trucks North America. Bob’s key university projects include other high-profile projects at the University of Cincinnati including the Campus Recreation Center and the Engineering Research Building, as well as the North Residential District Transformation project at Ohio State University. Bob is a graduate of the University of Cincinnati, College of DAAP Architecture program and began his career at KZF in 1984 with special expertise in Computer-Aided Design. He continues to provide quality control over KZF computer standards and served as KZF’s first BIM Manager.
Senior Vice President, Public Marketplace, KZF Design, Inc.
Doug Marsh is Senior Vice President and leader of KZF Design’s public-sector work, guiding the overall operations of our education, transportation and infrastructure and government markets. He has acted as Principal-in-Charge and/or Project Manager for many of the firm’s largest public projects. Doug joined KZF in 1989 after studying architecture at the University of Cincinnati. He was overall Project Manager for the University of Cincinnati Lindner College of Business project team, and in this role facilitated the entire design process, serving as a liaison between UC and the design team, and coordinating with the international design architect firm and nationwide consultant team.
Erin Baird, RA, LEED AP BD+
KZF Design, Inc.
Erin Baird, RA, LEED AP BD+C worked closely with Doug Marsh and the design and construction team for the University of Cincinnati’s Lindner College of business as Assistant Project Manager. She holds a Master’s Degree in architecture and has 12 years of experience in both designing and leading projects for clients in the fields of higher education, commercial & industrial, cultural, and workplace. Erin is currently focused on directing projects for KZF Design’s Civic & Public Safety Group.
David Bareswilt, LEED AP BD+C
Senior Cost Engineer, Turner Construction
David Bareswilt, LEED AP BD+C is a graduate of the University of Cincinnati College of Engineering’s Civil Engineering program. His 16 years of experience with the Turner Construction Company have seen taking the lead on many challenging and prominent higher education, commercial, and civic projects. He was Turner’s Project Manager for the University of Cincinnati’s Lindner College of Business, as well as Miami University’s Dauck Indoor Sports Center and Gunlock Athletic Performance Center. Additionally, David held the position of cost control manager for UC’s Nippert Stadium Expansion and Northern Kentucky University’s College of Informatics. Currently, he serves as Project Manager for FC Cincinnati’s new West End Stadium, which is scheduled to open for MLS play in 2021.
Pete Rasche, P.E. LEED AP, CEM
Senior Mechanical Engineer, PEDCO E & A Services, Inc.
Pete is a Senior Mechanical Engineer with over 22 years of experience designing, coordinating, and specifying various types of mechanical systems for commercial, industrial, and institutional facilities. Pete has been with PEDCO E & A Services for the past twelve years, becoming a Senior Engineer and one of the leaders in the Mechanical Engineering department. He is currently licensed in 8 states.
Pete is involved in the Cincinnati Chapter of ASHRAE, serving as President of the chapter for the 2018-2019 year. He also holds the title of Certified Energy Manager (CEM), is a LEED AP, and recently participated in ACEC Ohio’s Rising Leaders program.
Pete was born and raised in Cincinnati and attended Tulane University, earning a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering, while also playing varsity intercollegiate basketball for the nationally-ranked "Green Wave". He then attended Tulane Law School, earning a Juris Doctor. Pete currently resides in Evendale with his wife and two children.
Michael Patrick Walsh, P.E., LEED AP
CEO, PEDCO E&A Services, Inc.
Mike works with the executive leadership team to drive the vision of the company into all aspects of the business to maintain alignment and achieve strategic growth. Walsh has over 27 years of experience in architectural and engineering design of facilities for a variety of clients in the Greater Cincinnati area and across the country.
Mike currently holds leadership roles as a member of the Environmental Sustainability Council for the Cincinnati Contemporary Arts Center as well as the Industry Advisory Board for the University of Cincinnati College of Engineering and Applied Sciences CAECM. Mike has been published in both the ASHRAE Journal and the Consulting-Specifying Engineer magazine.
Born and raised in Ft. Thomas, Kentucky, Mike has grown up in the Greater Cincinnati community. After graduating from the University of Cincinnati with a B.S. in Electrical Engineering, Mike briefly moved to an adjacent city for four years before returning to Ft. Thomas where he currently resides with his wife, daughter, and two sons.
Frank Monastra, PE, LEED AP
Structural Engineering Project Manager, Woolpert
As an innovative and forward-thinking Structural Engineering Project Manager for Woolpert, a nationally recognized Architectural, Engineering, and Geospatial firm, Frank Monastra provides technical leadership and expertise on complex and multi-dimensional projects. With over 28 years of experience, Frank recognizes the importance of creating cutting-edge, impactful designs that provide creative solutions and practical constructability.
Frank’s extensive experience is concentrated in new construction and renovation projects which include design, code evaluations, condition assessments, and structural strengthening schemes. His expertise is building types in higher education, commercial, retail, industrial as well as parking garages.
Frank served as the Structural Engineer of Record for the University of Cincinnati Lindner College of Business, is a registered professional engineer in 12 states, and is a board member of the Structural Engineers Association of Ohio.